Tonga remains cut off after a massive eruption and tsunami

Published on : Tuesday, January 18, 2022

Saturday’s eruption of an underwater volcano near Tonga was likely the biggest recorded anywhere on the planet in more than 30 years, according to experts.

Dramatic images from space captured the eruption in real time, as a huge plume of ash, gas and steam was spewed up to 20 kilometers (12.4 miles) into the atmosphere and tsunami waves were sent crashing across the Pacific.


The eruption and subsequent tsunami caused “significant damage” along the western coast of the main island of Tongatapu, the New Zealand High Commission in Nuku’alofa said Monday.


The statement said that a thick layer of ash remains across Tongatapu.

On social media, footage showed people fleeing as waves inundated Tonga’s capital, Nuku’alofa, and the afternoon sky turned pitch black due to the heavy ash cloud.


Tsunami waves were also recorded thousands of miles away along the United States’ West Coast, in Peru, New Zealand and Japan. In Peru, at least two people died after being swept up by high waves.


No mass casualties have yet been reported, but aid organizations are concerned about contaminated air and access to clean water for people in Tonga’s outlying islands.

With communications down, Australia and New Zealand sent flights to survey the damage.

Here’s what we know about the eruption and fallout.


Where is Tonga’s Hunga-Tonga-Hunga-Ha’apai volcano?

Tonga is a Polynesian country of more than 170 South Pacific islands and home to about 100,000 people.

It’s a remote archipelago that lies about 800 kilometers (500 miles) east of Fiji and 2,380 kilometers (1,500 miles) from New Zealand.

The Hunga-Tonga-Hunga-Ha’apai volcano, about 30 kilometers (20 miles) southeast of Tonga’s Fonuafo’ou island, sits underwater between two small islands at about 2,000 meters (6,500 feet) high from the sea floor, with about 100 meters (328 feet) visible above sea level.


Researchers said it has erupted regularly over the past few decades.

In 2009, an eruption sent plumes of steam and ash into the air and formed new land above the water, and an eruption in January 2015 created a new island about 2 kilometers wide effectively joining up Hunga-Tonga and Hunga-Ha’apai islands.

The most recent eruption began in December 2021, with gas, steam, and ash plumes rising about 12 kilometers (7.5 miles) into the air. The volcano erupted again on January 14 and a massive eruption on January 15 sent shockwaves around the world and triggered tsunami waves across the Pacific.



Where did the tsunami hit?

The eruption caused a tsunami on Tonga’s largest island, Tongatapu, with waves recorded at 1.2 meters (about 4 feet) near Nuku’alofa city flowing onto coastal roads and flooding properties on Saturday.

Tsunami warnings went into effect across Pacific Island nations including Fiji, Samoa and Vanuatu. Footage from the ground in Fiji shows people fleeing to higher ground in the capital, Suva, as large waves hit the coast.


A tsunami has hit Tonga’s largest island, Tongatapu.

Tsunami warnings and advisories were also issued from parts of New Zealand, Japan and Peru, to the United States and Canada’s British Columbia.

In Japan, the northeastern prefecture of Iwate saw waves as high as 2.7 meters (9 feet) and multiple smaller tsunamis were reported in numerous other locations, according to public broadcaster NHK.

By Sunday afternoon, all tsunami advisories had been lifted in Japan.


The eruption also sent waves to the US West Coast, with some exceeding 3 and 4 feet in height, according to the National Weather Service office in San Diego.

Tsunami waves were felt in California, Alaska and Hawaii.


What is happening with the ash cloud?

A giant volcanic ash cloud blanketed Tonga over the weekend, turning the afternoon sky dark and coating Nuku’alofa in a thick foam of volcanic dust on Saturday.

Save the Children said drinking water supplies could be contaminated by the ash and smoke and the immediate concern in Tonga is for air and water safety.

The ash cloud was drifting westwards and was visible over Fiji, Vanuatu and New Caledonia on Sunday. By Monday it had reached Australia’s Queensland, according to the state’s meteorological service.


Several flights from Australia, New Zealand and Fiji to Tonga were postponed due to the ash cloud.


Early data suggests the volcanic eruption was the biggest since the 1991 blast at Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines, New Zealand-based volcanologist Shane Cronin told Radio New Zealand.

What is the scale of devastation?

There have been no reports so far of mass casualties in Tonga and the extent of the damage remains unknown as communications particularly on the outlying islands have not yet been reestablished.

Tonga needs immediate assistance to provide its citizens with fresh drinking water and food, the country’s Speaker of the House Lord Fakafanua said in a statement posted to social media.

New Zealand’s Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern said on January 16 that tsunami waves had a “significant impact” on Nuku’alofa, with boats and large boulders washed ashore.

New Zealand’s High Commission in Nuku’alofa echoed this, saying in a statement Monday that “significant” damage has been reported along the western coast of Tongatapu.


The International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies said its teams are on the ground and have enough supplies in the country to support 1,200 households.

New Zealand’s Defense Force dispatched an Orion aircraft for Tonga on a surveillance mission to assess the damage.

Ardern said the country has committed an initial $340,000 in relief supplies, technical support, and supporting local responses.





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